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Volcano Tonga: What we know so far | Tsunami News

As a tsunami threat around the Pacific from a major threat volcanic eruption When it began to shrink, a huge ash cloud covering the Pacific island nation of Tonga prevented flights from New Zealand to determine the extent of the damage.

The eruption of Mount Hunga-Tonga-Hunga-Ha’apai on Saturday triggered tsunami waves off the coast of Tonga, and water levels were reported off the coast of Peru and the Pacific Coast in the United States.

Tonga’s capital, Nuku’alofa, was severely damaged, New Zealand’s Prime Minister Jacinda Ardern said, adding that there were no reports of injuries or deaths but a thorough investigation was not possible with the means of communication.

Here is what we know so far about the Hunga-Tonga-Hunga-Ha’apai eruption.

What is an undersea mountain?

An underwater or underwater mountain is beneath the ocean floor and is basically volcanic.

There are about one million under the sea volcanoes that, like the volcanic mountains of the continent, they are close to the tectonic plates of the Earth and where they are formed. These volcanoes not only contain volcanoes but also spit out volcanic ash.

According to the Global Foundation for Ocean Exploration group, about “three-quarters of all the volcanic eruptions on Earth occur underwater”.

Underwater events produce mountains – underwater mountains that are formed under the sea but do not reach the surface of the water.

Al Jazeera

How often do Hunga-Tonga-Hunga-Ha’apai erupt?

The Hunga-Tonga-Hunga-Ha’apai mountain range, located about 40 miles[65 km]north of Nuku’alofa’s capital, has a long history of instability.

In recent years, the Hunga-Tonga-Hunga-Ha’apai volcano erupted in the sea in 2009. The 2015 eruption, spewing large rocks and ashes into the air, resulted in the formation of a new island 2km (1.2 miles) long by 1km width is 100 meters (328 feet) high.

On December 20 last year then on January 13, the mountain exploded again, the formation of visible ash clouds that appeared from the island of Tonga Tongatapu. On January 15, another massive explosion occurred, triggering tsunami waves.

Robin George Andrews, a volcanologist and science journalist, told Al Jazeera that underwater peaks such as the Hunga-Tonga-Hunga-Ha’apai erupt at least once every 1,000 years.

“It was this huge eruption, which scientists think is one of the 1,000-year-old events of this type of mountain,” he said.

“It takes about 1,000 years for us to add to it and we’ve only just reached the point where we were released that the amount of magma was exploding,” Andrews said.

Do volcanic eruptions cause tsunamis?

Volcanic eruptions could trigger tsunamis, several ocean waves caused by flooding.

However, the mechanism by which this occurs after the eruption of the ocean floor would still be debated among scientists.

Andrews said it was not known what caused the tsunami after the January 15 eruption.

“It is not yet clear what caused the tsunami that occurred shortly after the eruption. So whether it was part of a mountain that fell into the water, or an eruption, or a combination of both, “he said via Skype from London, UK.

January 15 explosion

Satellite images show ash, steam and air rising like fog on the blue Pacific waters Saturday evening, and sonic sounds echoed through Alaska, United States.

In Tonga, a tsunami struck the coast and people rushed to higher ground.

After the blast, the internet in Tonga was cut off, leaving friends and relatives around the world trying to contact each other to find out if there were any injuries.

“It’s probably the strongest explosion in all 21st years so far,” Andrews said.

People look at a wrecked boat in Lake Tutukaka, New ZealandPeople look at a wrecked boat in Tutukaka, New Zealand, Sunday after the waves of a Pacific volcano erupted in the Pacific Ocean. [Tanya White/Northern Advocate/NZME via AP Photo]

The United Nations Children’s Fund is planning to launch emergency missiles to fly to Tonga in partnership with Australia and New Zealand.

In California, the city of Santa Cruz was hit by a tsunami due to the tsunami, videos released by the US National Weather Service have shown.

Peru has closed 22 ports as a precautionary measure as waves of about 1.2 meters (4 meters) hit the Pacific coast of Japan.

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