A United Nations report warns that the gradual establishment of a peace treaty in South Sudan is in danger of turning the country back into a “major war”.
The political, military and ethnic divisions in South Sudan are on the rise, which has resulted in a number of violent incidents between the signatories until the end of last year, the possibility of a new war, and about 100,000 people facing starvation, ”it said.
In a 81-page report submitted to the UN Security Council on Monday, a panel of experts called for a immediate overhaul of President Salva Kiir’s government and for more than a year in political disputes and disagreements over how to end the February 2020 and 2018 war. and Vice President Riek Machar.
Dissatisfaction within Kiir’s army in Sudan and its powerful force in the Dinka tribe due to the changes “has led to a new leadership”, the report said.
It cited a number of secrets in the Kiir camp that were split over the sharing of government responsibilities and the President’s efforts to “resolve conflicts within his supporters failed and led to security measures outside the headquarters”.
As for Machar, the group has said its failure to hold government elections or promote the process has led the Sudan People’s Liberation Movement-Army to the Opposition, which the vice-president has started, “started”.
Some political and military leaders in the Machar camp are challenging his leadership, and some officials have returned to the government, experts said.
400,000 people have been killed
There was high hopes for peace and tranquility when oil-rich South Sudan gained independence from Sudan in 2011. But the country began to experience similar violence in December 2013 when Kiir’s loyal forces began to fight those loyal to Machar, his second deputy. to the president of the Nuer nation.
Several peace attempts have failed, including a deal that saw Machar return as vice president in 2016 but fled a few months after the new war. Civil war has killed at least 400,000 people and displaced millions.
The global crisis followed the recent peace agreement and the coalition government led by Kiir, Machar as his deputy. But the government has failed to implement a number of reforms, including completing a military coup, completing joint training, and reorganizing the Transitional Parliament.
“Given the concerns of government agencies, political leaders and military leaders over the possibility of an alliance to bring lasting peace to South Sudan and their demands for Kiir and Machar to step down, immediate action is needed to prevent a major return – struggle,” he said. said the group.
Experts have cited several sources in the government and the military that acknowledge that in the two-and-a-half-year signing of the peace agreement, its power has waned. He further added that Kiir and Machar party leaders also agreed that “the lack of establishment and the change in political affiliation of the signatories have made the agreement less effective”.
The commission also said that the federal government had failed to provide for the protection of civilians “who are facing serious threats to the security of the state and the armed forces”.
The World Hunger Awareness Report estimates that about half of South Sudan’s population is experiencing “severe hunger”, as well as more than 92,000 people living in remote areas – including the Greater Pibor Administrative Area, north of Bahr al-Ghazal and Warrap – ” has been experiencing famine-related problems since early March 2021 ”, experts say.
South Sudanese “need more humanitarian assistance in 2021 than ever before”, the report said.
“Although 8.5 million people are in need of assistance, the government has created barriers to humanitarian assistance, and the ongoing conflict has hampered the work,” it added.
The experts also demanded that military sanctions, which are due to expire at the end of May, be replaced by new sanctions against those who hinder the establishment of the 2018 peace accord and hinder the provision of aid.
They have also called for an independent inquiry into the government’s management of its reserves.