The Compagnie Belge Maritime du Congo launched its first ship, the SS Leopold, on its first voyage from Antwerp to Congo in 1895. Today the CMB, which replaced the colonists, carries passengers between the Belgian city and near the Kruibeke on hydrogen-powered boat.
“This is the fourth change in the electricity system – from paddling our boats to the steering wheel to a diesel engine and we need to redesign it,” said Alex Saverys, chief of CMB and head of one of Belgium’s oldest shipping companies.
Shipping emits about 3% of global greenhouse gases and without intervention its supply is expected to rise for many years as global trade grows. The International Maritime Organization, a UN agency that oversees global operations, wants to reduce its power by 2050.
Many people in the industry are hoping for blue or green hydrogen – made from carbon dioxide or renewable energy and whose only product is exploded by water – to help prevent fuel bunker damage.
Lasse Kristoffersen, chief executive officer of Norway’s Torvald Klaveness, said: “There is no doubt that hydrogen will be the carrier in 2050.” The question is, how do you make it and use it as a carrier? “
But some regulators who run large-scale transit systems across the globe carrying everything from raw materials to consumer goods doubt that hydrogen can play a small role in oil transformation.
While aviation services such as CMB ensure that the fuel can be used sparingly on construction roads, 85% of the group’s emissions come from heavy carriers, oil tankers and container ships, according to analysis by Royal Dutch Shell. Nothing can make them as powerful and cheap as oil.
“This is not an easy task to produce discarbones,” said Bud Darr, vice president of the Mediterranean Shipping Company, the world’s second largest container shipping company. “The need for independence at sea requires a considerable amount of fuel. We need several different types of oil in moderation and we need it urgently. We are open-minded and find all the answers. ”
Hydrogen has less energy compared to more fat. Maintaining its liquid form below -253C requires heavy cryogenic tanks that take up valuable space, making them less likely to catch large cargo ships.
“With current technology, we can’t use hydrogen to build our ships,” said Morten Bo Christiansen, chief of decarbonisation at AP Moller-Maersk, MSC’s main enemy.
However, the companies have high hopes for the use of ammonia, hydrogen and nitrogen compounds, to create global trade problems without emitting greenhouse gases.
Although fragrant and dangerous for males, ammonia is easy to drink, is already taken worldwide and has twice as much hydrogen permeability.
“The most efficient and reliable future oil is hydrogen oil combined with green ammonia,” says Rasmus Bach Nielsen, the world’s largest oil producer for Trafigura.
Engineers believe that this technology is impossible. Wärtsilä of Finland said it would be ready to upgrade ammonia-based engines by the end of next year, while Germany’s Man Energy Solutions plans to supply ammonia fuel in 2024.
About 176m tons of ammonia produced annually, mainly of fertilizers, currently use the “gray” hydrogen extracted from natural gas in the form of electricity that emits CO2.
Manufacturing carbon-free ammonia at a scale is a daunting task. Approximately 150m tons may be needed to meet the total fuel demand by 2050, according to reports and catalysis company Haldor Topsoe. This would require 1,500 terawatt hours of renewable energy, almost all of last year’s global wind power.
The investment in arms sales companies now call for global funding to support the production and implementation of next-generation oil.
“Technology is available and ready,” said Bach Nielsen. “Now we want rules.”
However, with 174 IMO countries including oil producers and exporters, reaching an agreement on the price of carbon is not an easy task. The EU plans to offer a proposal in June to include shipping in its air-conditioning trade but shipowners believe the global tax rate should be several times higher than the EU prices above € 47 tons for hydrogen fuel.
Any change in hydrogen or hydrogen emissions can be a long way from being noticed by the industry in the conversion of fossil fuels. Even now, only 11% of new ships in use are powered by natural gas, according to Drewry.
The medium-sized trial of the largest retailers focuses on low carbon dioxide and biofuels.
Maersk, which plans to launch its first carbon-free ship in 2023, is supporting methanol – either biomethanol-based waste such as wood or e-methanol made from CO2 absorbed by green hydrogen. CMA CGM of France sells biomethane. All of this is in line with existing engines.
Critics argue that the biomass requirements for biomethanol are low, and that production could lead to environmental problems such as deforestation and water pollution. He also claims that even if the fuel is made up of CO2, it will be released when it is burned.
“Why on earth should we release CO2 into the smoke when we have already used it?” asked Kristoffersen of Torvald Klaveness.
In many cases, this leaves hydrogen in some way at the peak of long-term vision to send a message. Few, however, are able to predict with confidence how quickly this can happen.
“We expect the technical crisis to be resolved in the next few years,” said Jan Dieleman, chief navigation officer for U.S. wheat retailer Cargill. “The biggest problem is regulating the law, because even more oil should be more expensive than oil. If we want to make decarbonise shipping, we will need rules for these changes. “
Types of hydrogen rainbow
Green hydrogen Made from the use of clean electricity from hydroelectric technologies to hydroelectric (H2O), separating the hydrogen atom inside it and its twin twins. At the moment it is very expensive.
Blue hydrogen It is produced using natural gas but contains carbon dioxide that is captured and stored, or recycled. Inadequate income due to unemployment.
Hydrogen black This is the most common type of hydrogen. It is derived from natural gas through the recycling of methane but does not absorb carbon dioxide.
Blue hydrogen The cheapest and most environmentally friendly way to make hydrogen is by the use of hot coal in production.
Type hydrogen Use a process called methane pyrolysis to produce hydrogen and carbon dioxide. Not guaranteed on a scale. Difficulties around methane leakage.