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Secret History Playing in Complex Cell Evolution


That’s why Tobias Warnecke, who studies the history of archeology at Imperial College London, thinks that “there must have been something very special about the early eukaryotes, in which we evolved from simple histones … to octameric nucleosomes. they do it differently. ”

What it is, however, is unknown. In the study types, there are “a few that have a history, and there are some types that do not have histones. And even those with histones are very different,” Warnecke said. Last December, he published a statement stating his existence different types of histone proteins and various activities. Histone-DNA mechanisms vary in their stability and DNA compatibility. But they are not always as stable or stable as the eukaryotic nucleosomes.

Although the wide variety of excavated histones is present, it provides an opportunity to understand the different mechanisms involved in genetic engineering. This is something we can never find from the “exhaustion” of eukaryotes, Warnecke says: “By understanding the combined nature of archeology,” we can identify what is unique about eukaryotic systems. ” The different types of histones and their structure in archaea also help us to understand what they were probably doing before taking part in genetic law.

The Role of Preservation of History

Because archaea are simple prokaryotes with small genomes, “I don’t think the first phase of histones was to improve color, or not to use eukaryotes,” Warnecke said. Instead, it is thought that perhaps histones protect the genome from damage.

Archaea often lives in extremely volatile areas, such as hot springs and volcanic eruptions, which are characterized by extreme heat, high temperatures, high salinity, high acidity or other threats. The formation of their DNA and histones can make it difficult for DNA strands to melt in these complex environments. Histones can also protect archaea against invaders, such as mapages or moving objects, which make it difficult for them to integrate into the genome when wrapped in proteins.

Kurdistani agrees. “If you were reading archaea 2 billion years ago, the combination of genomes and genetic modification is not the first thing to remember when you think of histones,” he said. Instead, they focus on some type of medical protection that histones can provide for archaea.

Last July, The Kurdish group reported that in the yeast nucleosomes, there is a support page for the two histone H3 protein groups that are able to bind and reduce electrical activity. To illustrate the significance of this, Kurdistani has returned to the Great Depression of the Earth, the Great Depression, which took place when eukaryotes began to change more than 2 billion years ago. Oxygen deprivation may have contributed to the global oxidation of metals such as copper and iron, which are vital to natural processes (albeit extremely hazardous). If they were oxygenated, the metal would be inaccessible to the cells, so any cells that store the metal in a smaller way would have a chance.

During the Great Oxidation Event, the potential to reduce copper would be “a very valuable commodity,” Kurdistani said. It can be particularly appealing to bacteria that were mitochondria, since cytochrome c oxidase, the last enzyme in the processes that mitochondria use to make energy, requires copper to function.

Because archaea live in a very difficult environment, they may have found ways to make and deal with reduced copper without being killed by the Great Oxidation Event. If so, proto-mitochondria may have crept into the ruins to steal their low-grade copper, says Kurdistani.

Siavash Kurdistani, a biochemist at the University of California, Los Angeles, has suggested how the potential transfer of histones may contribute to endosymbiosis that produces eukaryotes.Photo: Reed Hutchinson / UCLA Broad Stem Cell Research Center

Hypothesis is interesting because it can explain why eukaryotes discovered too much air in the atmosphere. “There were 1.5 billion years of life before that, and there is no sign of eukaryotes,” Kurdistani said. “Therefore the idea that air conducts the first eukaryotic skin, for me, should be relevant to any idea that tries to figure out why these things started.”


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