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How Do We Know When the Sun Will Rise?

Example: Benjamin Currie

Think of the Sun: hot, big, and why all of this (cruel form) is possible. Our local constellation influences all living things as we know them, providing energy that supports everything from microbes that make up photosynthesizing to giant land and sea animals.

But one day, far in the future – the sun will die. Things will not just be dark, though. Instead, they will go very, very bright. Hot, too, unbearable. The sun will be invisible, if anyone is near to see it.

“One of the most important questions that any intelligent person ever has is: how did we get here, what is the point, what does it mean? Questions about our origin and our future, ”said Jackie Faherty, astronomer at the American Museum of Natural History, by telephone. “If you want to understand where our Sun can live, you need to know how long it will last, how it changes, and how it changes. It all comes down to this important issue.”

Which brings us to today’s question: How much of our life-giving day is left, and how do we know?


“Once you realize it’s a gas ball, you know it’s not a limitless machine,” Faherty said. “You need to know when it will end.” Calculating that time is a simple process, built on complex mathematics and small recognition.

To find out how much time the Sun has left – and, the destroyer, is about 5 billion years old – you need to know how many years it is. The stars do not die suddenly, so knowing the age of the stars is a very important sign of the order of the day. In the 19th century, in the course of a debate on the age of the earth, Charles Darwin and Lord Kelvin, astronomer, argued about the age of the Sun. Darwin’s comparisons were made closer; Nuclear power had not yet been found, and Kelvin worked to suppose that the sun was burning coals. It lost its number a bit.

Our solar system is based on the oldest extraterrestrial rocks that move across the solar system, which is basically a rejectament that was not designed to be a planet or a moon at the time of planetary integration. These fossils always give us 4.6 billion years, and scientists can say that they are very accurate. number of channels.

Sun, photographed by NASA's Solar Dynamics Observatory in 2013.

It is also important to know the brightness of the Sun, because it tells us how strong the star is. We know how the Sun shines from when we know how far away it is, a measure called part of the astronomyor AU. (“Everything revolves around the distance,” Faherty explained.) The standard was deep reading the use of parallax force and the 1769 voyage of Venus across the Sun; The famous Captain Cook embarked on some of his experiences in Tahiti.

One celestial body is now at 92,955,807.3 miles and is an important measure in discussing the space distance and orbits of our orbits. By that standard, astronomers were able to determine the brightness of the sun, or brightness — before its arrival, and they were not sure if the star was too close to dark or too far away from the bright light.

As is often the case, the Sun is among the stars when it reaches the stars. This was well illustrated by one of the most important paintings in astronomical history, the statue of Hertzsprung-Russell, which reflects the light and color of the stars. The two astronomers cited include the idea that stars burn hydrogen in a certain way, and that burning is associated with astronomical temperature and internal physics.

Things got worse Cecilia Payne, a Harvard astrophysics medical student, wrote his theory on the idea that most stars were made of hydrogen and helium. At the time, Russell (famous photographer) was one of Payne’s directors called the numbers “impossible,” and Payne ended up removing the idea from the text. But it was immediately confirmed, and it was only through his work that the image of Hertzsprung-Russell could be paid as a tool in astrophysics, to understand the constellation; that is, how his physics has what will happen. Only when we place our Sun in the constellation only do we realize what kind of star it is and how bright it is among its peers.

Picture.

“Observing other stars has helped us to understand the meaning of the stars. In particular, the most important component was the constellations (stars that are the same distance, the same shape, and only differ in weight). It was then possible to understand that astronomical change depends largely on the number of stars, “said Gianluca Pizzone, an astronomer at the International Astronomy Union, in an email.

Because we know the amount of solar nuclear fusion, we know how much it burns its nuclear fuel. Albert Zijlstra, an astronomer at the University of Manchester, explained that the price is too late. “The sun is not a bomb, it is a very serious nuclear problem,” he said in a phone call. “At one kilogram, it produces less energy than you do. It takes time.” Easy, Sun. No running.


But these thoughts come together now. Knowing the age of the Sun and the degree to which it is incorporating means that astronomers know how much of it has already been heated. The sun has been shining for about 5 billion years and will burn about 5 billion. That is where the excitement lies: “You can expect nuclear deterrence [over time] because there is less hydrogen. But that is not possible — it is the heat that keeps the Sun in place. Hydrogen is depleted slowly, and the entire solar system moves slowly, increasing the temperature, “said Zijlstra. gravity always wins.

Our sun is not big enough to form a supernova, a massive star explosion. Major stars leave behind neutron stars or black holes; the end of the Sun will be wonderful in another way. As it burns with hydrogen, the sun decreases and the outer layers of the star become hotter. Integration begins to occur in the central environment. The sun becomes a giant red, a very broad star that burns with less energy than before. The journey to the red giant takes time, but once it is one, its end is fast.

“Right now, it will be a very bad time to move to Mercury,” Zijlstra said. “Eventually you find yourself in the middle of the Sun.” The new, angry sun has taken its first toll.

The sun will continue to swell and swell. Venus is also swallowed up. (There is some debate as to whether the full-blown red Sun will reach Earth or not, but suffice it to say that things will get worse here; in fact, the oceans will swell and the Earth will resemble modern Venus.) The sun is so widespread that it begins to evaporate.

After 100,000 years of being a red giant, it loses half of its weight. At this point, the Sun is nearing its end. It is a white, residual stellar star about the size of our planet. Its nuclear power is now depleted, and it will gradually cool off into a solid carbon ball – especially floating. diamonds in space.

And in the orbit of the solar system, the sun’s mass of fluids can be seen as fluoresce, the planet’s impressive gases. But this is not true, said Zijlstra, who in 2019 co-authored the paper. Nature Astronomy on the ability of our Sun to light a nebula. For such a nebula to occur, the Sun needs to heat up as the cloud approaches, and even when the cosmic light source is the blink of an eye in a galaxy: about 10,000 years. Pizzone said the nebula could look like the light of the Messier 57, the Ring Nebula.

The Ring Nebula.

It is worthwhile to look at all of this in a positive light. The blink of an eye at the end of our star would be twice as long as the recorded human history. Prior to the existence of life on Earth, the original planet was not as hospitable as it will be. In other words, we are not in the right place at the right time, but at the right time.

“It’s very important to realize that we have a chance to survive right now, where there is so much good care about solar energy (and the stability of our moon) today,” said Adam Kowalski, a hospital astronomer. National Solar Observatory, by email at Gizmodo. “We don’t want to confuse this because so far, we haven’t found any planet around another star that we know has its limits.”

Needless to say, we have found ways to destroy things. This decade will explain the process of climate change in the coming years and beyond. In the evolutionary sense, “we have just come to light up the planet of the solar system,” says Faherty. “Do not think that the Earth will be swallowed up by the Sun and that this is how we will go … I would be very concerned about how we change things before we even get there.”

So, we know how and when the Sun will die and take the earth and live in it. Whether the wise life will remain here 5 billion years from now to get off the ship, still, it is impossible to know.


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