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Beating Books: Working from home brought our closest friends


Nearly 40,000 years ago, people still had a very good idea: turn enemies of the past into a friendly and loyal person. Although the first people were very disturbed by the first few thousand years of the process, the effects were not limited. The pet system supports our modern world, without which we would not have dogs or cats or farm animals – or farms for that reason. In his most recent book, Our Oldest Friends: The Story of the First Dogs, A sociologist and American Association for the Advancement of Science partner, Pat Shipman, explores the early days of the relationship and how the evolution of dogs from wolves completely changed human history.

Harvard University Press

From OLD FRIENDS: THE STORY OF THE FIRST DOG by PAT SHIPMAN, published by The Belknap Press of Harvard University Press. Copyright © 2021 by Harvard College President and Fellows. Used with permission. All rights reserved.

To answer the question of whether the original dog was adapted to Asia or Europe or not, we need to go back and make a better definition of domestic work.

“Living at home” has a special meaning. The word comes from the Latin for “house” or “house”: domus. In its broadest sense, herding is the process of providing an animal or plant that is appropriate or acceptable to be in a domus, to be a member of, and to have a close relationship with, a family.

Even in this general sense, the real meaning of living in a house is not always clear. Are plants grown? Certainly some of them are said to be domesticated, as in need of deliberate care and cultivation, and sometimes fertilized by humans, and, instead, to be genetically modified through human choice to have the characteristics considered essential. I’m not talking about the most recent way to alter plant genetics; these genetically modified organisms, such as soybeans, are commonly known as GMOs (genetically modified organisms). Selection has been practiced for thousands of years by hunters, gatherers, food hunters, gardeners, farmers, and breeders of all kinds through traditional methods, not in the laboratory. If you want, for example, violets with white stripes, what do you do? You try to raise the seeds of those that show white stripes and pull out the ones that don’t show, until you find stripes (if you do).

We can understand the concept of selecting or selecting the most important crops – which provide a lot of nutrients in certain conditions, for example – but the selection process is amazing. Plants that produce a lot of fruit or seeds or tubers are the ones you would like to eat the most – and that is what you should store for the next planting season. What is the most effective method? Why did people start storing the best seeds? It’s a bit complicated. As the late Brian Hesse wisely observed in his early childhood education studies, malnourished people, even the hungry, do not store food for the next season or next year. They just try to survive until next week.

The practice of storing grain for food may have begun in those days, when food was plentiful for future storage. This means that the factors that make people live indoors do not have to ensure that the food is stable because doing domestic initiatives makes sense if you have enough food. Plant breeding seems to want to improve plant species over time. But you do not care if the plant is happy to see you or play well with the children.

Also, strictly speaking, domestic plants – seeds – do not exactly live with people or indoors. In fact, because some, such as nuts and fruits, grow on trees, and often require sunlight, they would not be able to stay indoors. Household plants do not take part in family life in any way, although their needs and environment can change the weather and daily events as well as the environment. They do not enter into a marriage. There is a wonderful relationship between those who harvest and those who harvest or cultivate.

The more you focus on domesticated plants, the more the concept of “grazing” becomes easier. Farmers or farmers of the past did not know enough about breeding methods or genetics to know how to make a particular crop to feed other crops and make large corms, juicier fruits, or leafy vegetables (which are easier to harvest), or tubers that were rich in nutrients. . Domestic plants were not just a matter of identifying which plants were friendly or troublesome. In time, however, knowledge was acquired, sometimes accompanied by positive ones, and people discovered how to change the genetic makeup of certain plants for better results. These findings are often referred to as Neolithic changes or the emergence of agriculture. It is generally thought that it happened about 11,000 years ago. Farming as a food farming system transformed at least some of the people who were once hunting, gathering, and eating the daily food – nomadic peoples living in the country – and turned them into permanent farmers, built on farms and in villages and houses.

Neolithic reforms were not the first success. Numerous studies indicate that people who were early farmers were healthier because they often ate nutritious food based on fewer nutrients. Having less food means that people were at risk for climate change, such as more or less rainfall, too hot or too cold or too short a season; and of course there were plant diseases, which spread easily when the whole garden was planted with one kind. Cultivation also contributed to a stable environment, which in turn contributed to sanitation, water, and many other diseases.

Although agriculture helped more people to live less than hunting and eating, it also created better conditions for the spread of infectious diseases and starvation during the worst years. Then came the war. Among the nomadic hunters and hunters, conflicts are often resolved by one group from another. But cleaning and building farms, planting and caring for crops, and storage areas takes a lot of work, so people start protecting areas – or taking over other people’s lands in times of crisis and their crops failing. More and more food, such as next year’s crop or vegetables stored in the winter, can be stolen during a disaster. Leaving a field that has been cut down or planted in a barn is a more expensive, more dangerous idea than just moving your hunt to another place when the animals are in need or your brother-in-law is annoying you.

As we know now, herding of plants began 11,000 years ago with figs, emmer wheat, flax, and peas in the Near East. About the same time, foxtail millet was bred in Asia. How do we know this? We know why plant residues are kept so special. Seeds can be stored and sometimes were.

Many edible plants also contain starch and phytoliths, small silica particles that fight decay rather than leaves or stems. Once available, this can also be used to identify previously used crops; ways like a radiocarbon dating can tell us when this happened.

In ancient times, it was thought that plants were tamed more than animals, but modern science has proved this to be a mistake. There is no valid reason to be truthful. The characteristics and needs of domesticated crops vary greatly from the food they hunt or collect; knowing how to raise wheat does not tell you much about how to care for pigs. Like fields, especially rich hunting areas could be seized by others and should be protected. But many hunters and herdsmen were nomadic and lived in limited spaces because of the need. Prolonged stay in one area reduced the population. While farmers can store future harvests, hunters may not keep the animals for a long time in warm or humid climates, although extreme temperatures work best to keep the animals cool. Over time, the plants are more likely to steal than corpses.

Petting also involves other things. Pets are often not hunted; Of course, they do not always close and can be free. However, domesticated animals can be easily relocated to a new location than a planted field, a barn, or a pile of tubers, which will not be able to move to a new location. Such animals are more likely to carry household goods when they are being relocated. Moving pets is a very different concept from moving a vegetarian diet.

So why do we use the same words, pets, to describe both plants and animals, and one word, pets, to describe the way an organism lives? I think it’s a big mistake that is based on old ideas and misconceptions. I don’t believe there is only one way. I would argue that the domestication of plants and animals is very different because the wildlife breeds that can breed are also very different. In addition to being genetically modified, some people have to adapt to certain conditions in order to become domesticated. Animals choose to breed, if they are successful. Plants do not. Like animals, plants need a genetic diversity to be used by humans during the breeding season, but plants do not choose to grow or develop. Animals have to decide whether to get along or not.

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