This article is modified from How to Change: Science From Where You Go Where You Want to Be and Katy Milkman.
When you walk 10,000 steps a day, your Fitbit rewards you with firefighters, giving you a reason to stand up and smile proudly. If you speak a foreign language in Duolingo for a few days in a row, you get a “streak” and you are encouraged to keep it, giving you another reason to try repeating. When companies, coaches, coaches, or programs add features such as symbolic prizes, competitions, social networking, or fun words and colors to make it sound like a joke, they rely on “ranking” to improve what can happen otherwise be uninterested. I would suggest that most apps on your phone use some electronic means, but we are also seeing the game in our workplaces as well as in our insurance.
The first preparation began more than a decade ago. At the time, there was not much evidence on its value; the idea just seemed logical. Business consultants have promised organizations that the work of fitness can motivate employees, not only by changing their careers, but by changing their design, and making achieving goals more fun because (“Yes! I’ve got stars!”). Professional companies such as Cisco, Microsoft, and SAP, for example, have found ways to transform everything from learning social skills, that confirming linguistic interpretation, promotion sales activity.
Today, thanks to science, we know more about how a system works, and how its boundaries work. After the programs and programs we use to learn new skills, companies like Amazon and Uber now use it to motivate employees. But in order to get the results we want, both in our own lives and in the workplace, it is important to understand when the performance will work — and when it will only add to things.
In 2012, Jana Gallus, a brilliant economist studying his doctorate at the University of Zurich, heard of the plight of Wikipedia — and saw an opportunity to test the value of the game in the first place. Although the 50 million online booklet is available in over 280 languages, Gallus has noticed that his well-known editors are moving away in large numbers. And since so-called Wikipedians who keep their notes on every page from Game of Thrones in order for more machines to be accurate and to date they are not paid at all, the agency must find a way to keep its leading developers at a difficult task sometimes solving online content without giving them money.
In hopes of lowering interest rates, Wikipedia allows Gallus to drive to try and 4,000 new volunteer editors. Based on his writings, he told other potential visitors to Wikipedia that he had been honored for their efforts, and that their names were listed as winners on the Wikipedia website. They also received one, two, or three stars, which appear next to their name, while many stars are awarded to the best performers. Some newcomers who made a contribution to Wikipedia but came out at the other end of the financial spectrum did not receive symbolic rewards (and were not told that such rewards exist). Gallus thought the rewards would make the boring work sound like a game by adding something fun and praising the work you did well.
He was right. Volunteers who were accepted for their efforts had a 20% chance to re-submit to Wikipedia the following month and 13% were more likely than those who were not recommended to work on Wikipedia the following year.
Examples like these can make the game seem unreasonable: Why would a company not want a job that is fun? Despite Gallus’ impressive results, recent research suggests that as a way to promote behavioral change, the game is likely to reverse. Two of my Wharton colleagues, Ethan Mollick and Nancy Rothbard – wrote to try it proved so. It affected hundreds of retailers who had a tedious task of reaching out to businesses and persuaded them to offer coupons for discounted products or services sold on their company page (consider Groupon). Advertisers welcome any committee that ultimately sells online.
In an effort to make this fun, Mollick and Rothbard worked with professional athletes to create commercial games for basketball teams. Retailers can earn points by closing customer and customer, with more points at higher prices. Trips from the tropics are called “traffic,” while cold phones are called “jumps.” Major exhibitions at retail stores showcased the names of the best performers and featured hand-painted basketball videos as a winning dunk. Regular emails change “players” on the winner, and after the game, the winner takes a bottle of champagne.