The laws of thermodynamics help to regulate almost everything in the known universe – from the life cycle of single cells to the formation of black holes in the galactic core. And without the Herculean efforts of scientists, theologians, engineers, and sweatshops for nearly two centuries, people would not be as happy as the technological advances we are making today. Modern appliances such as refrigerators, incandescent bulbs, indoor air conditioners, and aircraft engines are simply the product of modern scientific knowledge. In his new book, Einstein Refrigerator, author, filmmaker, and science fiction novelist Paul Sen, examines the work of these amazing pioneer researchers – from Lord Kelvin and James Joule to Emmy Noether, Alan Turing, and Stephen Hawking – as they seek to better understand the universe. .
“Mentioned from Einstein Fridge: How the Distinction Between Temperature and Cold Explains the Environment Author Paul Sen. Copyright © 2021 by Furnace Limited authorized by Scribner, Simon & Schuster, Inc. “
In 1900, Max Planck, who had opposed Boltzmann’s science for nearly two decades, wrote articles that changed the course of change. Even unexpectedly he seemed to be saying this Boltzmann’s Computation methods may be more important than thermodynamics.
This unpredictable turn was forced on Planck with the advent of a new technology — the electric light bulb. In electric currents this process travels through the filaments, heating them and causing them to ignite. This aroused the interest of scientists in their study of the relationship between heat and light.
There are three ways – conduction, convection, and radiation – in which heat can be released from an object. Everything can be seen in most kitchens.
To do with the way electric hot plates change the temperature. All the heat of the dish is connected to the bottom of the pan, and the heat flows from one end to the other. The theory of motion is as follows: As the temperature of a hot plate rises, its molecules vibrate faster and faster. Because it affects the packaging molecules, it shakes them. Soon all the molecules of the broth are shaking violently than before, which is noticeable as the pan temperature rises.
Heat flow through convection occurs in the oven. The heating element inside the wall of the oven enables nearby air molecules to circulate more rapidly. This comes in close proximity to the deepest molecules in the oven, increasing its velocity, and soon all the oven temperature rises.
The third type of heat transfer, and radiation, is that which is connected to light. Turn on the grill, and when the heat starts, it shines. In addition to the red light, it also provides infrared light, which is what heats. When this strikes an object, let us say that the sausages in the grill pan cause their molecules to vibrate, increasing their temperature.
Scientists understand that heat emissions changed in the 1860s thanks to James Clerk Maxwell, who published mathematics similar to “electric motors.”
To illustrate Maxwell’s thought, imagine that you are holding a string in the middle of a long rope. It is well stretched and at the other end is, say, the distance. Jerk end you are holding up and down. You see the kink moving away from you under the rope. Now move the end of the rope up and down continuously. Low static waves travel under the rope.
To find out, think of the string as a string. Everything is connected with the next and expands a bit. When you move the first bead into a chain, it pulls the one next to it. This pulls one over and so on and so forth. The rise and fall of the first bead is stretched in succession by all the beads, which look like a wave moving rope.
How fast does the wave move along the rope? It depends on the weight of the beads and on the problems with the joints. Making heavy beads is slow because you have to work hard to move. An increase in grief is accelerating. Each necklace can be pulled tight and then if stretching between them is difficult. Ideally, if you shake at the end of a heavy rope, the swimmers move slowly down the aisle. In contrast, the waves rush to the surface, a small guitar strings of more than a thousand miles[1,000 km]an hour.
In Maxwell’s mind, empty spaces are filled with vicious “strings” of this kind. They are made of tiny particles that make up all the “things” in the world. Take, for example, the wrong small electrons, which are one part of all atoms. Just think of one of the lights not moving in an empty space. Strong strings start both sides through even if they can fit. They are known as “power lines,” which are invisible and do not have them but when you place other small objects, such as a well-tuned proton, on the line, it feels pulled to the electron just as a chain chain feels pulled.
Now imagine the electric current starting to go up and down. As the wave descends and the cable, the waves flow from the electrons down to the outgoing power lines.
So how do electric waves of this kind run? One of the greatest scientific discoveries, Maxwell figured out how to test this. Take one straight line from the electron. Just think of the distance, there are tiny compass needles. As the wave moves and descends along the field line, the needle’s compass rotates in a straight line, facing it and then moving away from it. Readers may be aware that the electric current under the wire may have a similar effect, producing what is known as a magnetic field around it. Maxwell argued that when waves travel in electric currents, they emit waves. He likened these waves to the right angle to each other. For example, say that electric waves are moving up and down as they pass from left to right. Then the following magnets can move you away from you. And, importantly, making this kind of magnet requires as much effort as moving heavy beads into a rope.
Maxwell’s ideas were simple, direct. But it was worth it. Remember with a shaky chain, we can predict the speed at which a wave will travel by measuring one of its beads and measuring the wires connected by the elastic. Likewise, Maxwell can easily find and compare their similarities in the field lines. These problems can be solved by trying to figure out how two competing things pull together. The weight of the bead was based on a test of the strength of the magnetic field produced as a modern known wire-traveling wire.
Using these standards, Maxwell calculated that the tides would travel some 200,000 miles[300,000 km]per second. Look, look, it was so close to comparing the speed of light — so close it could happen by accident. It seemed impossible for light to “just happen” to travel at the same speed as electric waves; it seemed possible that light could be an electric current.
The fact is that each electric current emits energy waves. Daylight is present because the electrons in the sun are constantly vibrating. He sends forth the waves along the field that comes from them. When this gets to our eyes, it vibrates tiny particles in our eyes. (This is known as “seeing.”)
Maxwell showed that the type of analysis is determined by the amount or quantity of how the electrical waves fill. When it does so, the light emits light. The red light, the lowest visible light, is an electric motor that travels 450 trillion times per second. Green light travels at a rate of about 550 trillion times per second, and blue light about 650 trillion once per second.
Not only did Maxwell’s theory describe the visible colors, but he also foretold the existence of invisible electric waves. Obviously, this was found from the 1870s onwards. For example, radio waves have frequencies ranging from less than 100 seconds per second to about three million. The term “microwave” is defined from about three billion times. Infrared is located between microwaves and visible light. Frequencies are greater than blue light, they contain ultraviolet radiation. Then comes X-rays, and the gamma rays come out as low as one hundred billionths of a second. The whole spectrum, from radio waves to gamma rays, is called the electric field.
Maxwell’s discovery meant that physicists knew how to make bulb threads. The electric current causes the threads to overheat. This causes its electrons to orbit and emit electromagnetic waves. Instead, all objects emit high energy waves. Atoms move at a constant rate, which means that their electrons are the same. For example, at temperatures around 97 ° C, human bodies emit high-energy waves. Snakes, such as snakes, scorpions, and boas, have adapted their organs to recognize such rays to help them hunt and find a cool place to rest.
The interest in the late nineteenth century was – what is the relationship between the temperature of an object and the frequency of the electric waves that form?